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The Last Temptation Of Christ (1998)

The Last Temptation of Christ (1998)
Rating
4.12 of 5 Votes: 3
ISBN
068485256X (ISBN13: 9780684852560)
languge
English
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publisher
simon & schuster
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The Last Temptation Of Christ (1998)
The Last Temptation Of Christ (1998)

About book: يبدو المسيح في هذه الرواية فكرة مطاطية جدا ً بشكل ٍ غريب ، فهو ابن الله الذي يرغب بالتضحية في نفسه ، و هو نفسه الإنسان الذي يرغب بالحياة كما يشاء ، و كأنه يعترض على إرادة الله ، من أجل خلاص روحه هو فقط ، المسيح هنا خليط ٌ عجيب من الإنسانية و الألوهية و الرسالة و النبوة ، فكرة الصلب و تخليص العالم من آثامه ليست مجرد حلم فقط ، بل فكرة جميلة قادرة على تخدير الإنسانية بأن هناك من كفّر غنها خطاياها ، فكرة الصلب ما كانت لتكون هذه المسيحية من دونها ، هذه الفكرة التي ألهبت قلب الإنسان من خلال مفهوم التضحية من أجل إسعاد الآخرين ، التضحية التي تسحر الجميع ، فالأضحية التي تختار تاريخ استشهادها قادرة على تغيير مصائر البشرية ، فالإنسان بطبعه يحتاج إلى أمثولة مثل هذه من أجل الإيمان بقكرة ٍ ما ، طبيعة الإنسان النتظر إلى الشهيد على أنه طريقة لتكفير الذنوب .الصليب الذي تخبرنا عنه المسيحية لم يكن خشبا ً أبدا ً بالمطلق ، بل روحا ً حرة قادرة على تخليص الإنسان من آثام الحياة ، و الغوص في ملكوت الروحانية ، هذا الصليب بصورته المسيحية الخالصة صُوّر على أنه بوابة الابن لأبيه ، كان الفكرة الأمثل لتغطية آثام و رغبات الإنسان ، و تخدير عقله من أجل تسويق فكرة ٍ ما ، وحده الشهيد المضحّي يمثل أفضل مادة إعلانية للحياة الآخرة تماما ً كما هي فكرة المرأة و الجسد في الإسلام - الحور العين - .عن الرواية : يطرح كازنتزاكيس المسيح على عدة أشكال متغايرة و مختلفة بنفسيات و أرواح لا تمت لبعضها بصلة ، بل إن الصراع بينها دائر ٌ ، أساسه الطمأنينة و التخلص من الشر الكامن في هذه الحياة ، فهذه الأشكال متغايرة في الروح و النفسيات لكنها مشتركة في المصير بالنهاية ، فتارة ً على هيئة إنسان ٍ مضطرب ٍ تصرفاته غير مفهومه بالنسبة للمحيطين به ، انطوائي يعد أموراً ٍ مبهمة ، هذا الإنسان الذي يُرسم له قدره ، و يعاني جراء هذا الرسم حتى ليكاد يهرب منه ، على أن فكرة الهروب ليس من هذا القدر و من الصراع النفسي داخله ، بل من هذا العالم برمته ، و من فكرة الإنسان الذي يعاني خللا ً في أعين الآخرين و اضطراباً غريبا ً يكاد يكون بوادر النبوة التي تحل في قلوب الأنبياء و أرواحهم ، و رغم ذلك فهذا النبي المعد لا يخلو من صراعات ٍ داخل روحه هذه الصراعات التي تقوده إلى مصير ٍ ليس متأكدا ً منه حتى و هو يمارسه .فهو يعرض يسوع ما قبل النبوة كمتحدث ٍ عن الحب و مبشر ٍ بخلاص البشرية بفكرة طوباوية خارقة حتى للخيال ، هذه الفكرة التي تنسب له الكثير من الاتهامات و التي تجد قبولا ً في قلوب الكثيرين من الناس البسطاء و المعدومين و المحتاجين ، فكرة الطمأنينة و الحب و الأمان و السلام و الإخاء و العدالة التي تجلب لهم الخبز و الخمرة و البيت المريح ، هذه اليوتوبيا التي يتحدث بها إنسان ٌ هو في دخيلته لا يكاد يفهمها ، فهذا المتحدث يخبر عن أشياء أقرب ما تكون إلى الخيال منه إلى الواقع ، ثم فكرة النبي الذي يصبح ابن الله أو المخلّص الذي يبحث عن موته من اجل تحمّل آثام الخيقة و التي تمثلت في مرحلة الصلب ليكون طريق الخلاص للبشرية .في النهاية تعرض فكرة مغايرة عن المسيح المخلص و عن تلامذته ، فالمسيح الذي استطاب و لو لبرهة فكرة الحياة بشكل ٍ إنساني ٍ عادي ، اكثر من الشكل النبوي و الرسولي و الإلهي ، هذا الشكل الذي لم يعجب تلامذته حتى و لو كانت الفكرة مجرد خيال ٍ في رأسه ، فضمميره الذي صوّر له غضب أصدقائه سداً في سبيل هذه الحياة ، فالكاتب يرى أن التلاميذ استطابوا فكرة الصلب ، كي تكون وسيلة ً يستفاد منها لا أكثر ، فالصلب كرمز ٍ ديني مثله مثل الكنيسة و الكرسي الرسولي و سواها معالم لها دورها في نشر المسيحية و استخدامها كرمزيات روحية تستقطب الكثيرين من أجل الإيمان بهذه الفكرة أو تلك او هذا الدين او ذلك .تمثل فكرة الصلب بجانب رمزية الخلاص للبشرية و التخفف من أعباء الآثام ، رمزية افتتاح مرحلة الخلود بالنسبة للإنسان المؤمن فالمسيح الذي اختفى من على الصليب و من قبره في اليوم الثالث ، و رحل إلى السماء ما زال يمثّل أجمل أفكار التضحية و خلاص الإنسان من آلامه الشخصية كما آثامه تجاه الله ، و فكرة العدالة و المحبة كفترة نبوته ، قبل أن يكتشف ذاته ابنا ً لله !/اقتباسات : "- لمعلوماتك الرب ليس كافيا ً ، و الإنسان ليس كافيا ً ، عليهما أن يتقاتلا معا .-افتحوا عيون أرواحكم و تأملوا السموات ، الرب فوقنا ، و أبواب السموات مفتوحة ، و جيوش الملائكة تتقدم ، و الهواء امتلأ بأجنحة حمراء زرقاء .-إن الرب هوة سحيقة ، هوة سحيقة ، و أفضل ألا أقترب منه !-إن الرب ليس في عجلة ٍ من أمره ، لكن الإنسان مستعجل .-الرب يا بطرس صياد سمك ٍ مثلك !-أيها الشيطان التعس ، ألا تعلم أن الرب لا يوجد في الأديرة فبل في منازل البشر ؟ إنك حيثما تجد زوجا ً و زوجة ، تجد هناك الرب ، حيثما يوجد الأطفال و الهموم الصغيرة و المناقشات و المصالحات ، يوجد أيضا ً الرب . لا تنصت إلى أولئك الخصيان ، إنهم عنب ٌ حامض ، الرب الذي أعنيه هو الأليف ، و ليس الديري : هذا هو الرب الحقيقي ، غنه الجدير بعبادتك ، دع الرب الآخر لأولئك البلهاء الكسالى العقيمين القابعين في الصحراء !-لا اتحمل رؤية البشر ، لا أريد أن أراهم ، حتى الخبز الذي منحونك إياه مسموم ، ليس هناك غير درب ٍ واحد ٍ يؤدي إلى الرب : الدرب الذي اخترته هذا اليوم . إنه يمر من خلال الناس دون أن يلمسهم ، و يدخل في قلب الصحراء !-يا إلهي تصور الحياة التي لا بد أن الرب المسكين يمر بها بدوره ، لا شك انه تورّط في خلق العالم ، إن السمك يصرخ ، لا تعمني يا رب لا تجعلني أدخل الشباك ! و يصرخ الصياد ، اعم السمك يا رب اجعله يلج الشباك ! فإلى أي ٍ منهما يجب أن ينصت ؟ احيانا ً يلبي طلب السمك ، و طورا ً يلبي رغبة الصياد ، بهذه الطريقة يسير العالم !-شكرا ً لك يا رب ، على كل شيء ، على العزلة ، على الجوع ، و البرد . لم يعد ينقصني شيء !-إن روح المرأة هي لحمها !-إن المرأة ظبية جريحة ، و متعة تلك المسكينة الوحيدة هي ان تلعق جروحها !-إذا لم تُمنح الغفران . انتزعه ! أنت رجل .- مبارك ق الذي يبعث الخبز و الفاصولياء العريضة و العاهرات إلى العالم ، و الضيوف الورعين .-إن جسد الإنسان ملعون ، الجسد هو الذي يتدخل دائما ً و يرفض أن يدع الروح ترى و تسمع اللامرئي . اقتلني يا رب ، أريد أن أكون قادرا ً على المثول بين يديك متحررا ً من جدار الجسد الفاصل ، حتى أسمعك حين تكلمني !-ماذا بوسع الحروف أن تقوله ؟ إنها قضبان السجن الذي تختنق الروح داخله من طول الصراخ . إن الروح تنتقل بحرية ٍ بين الحروف و الأسطر ، و في أرجاء الهوامش الخالية ، و اتنقّل أنا معها لأحضر لكم هذه الرسالة العظيمة : يا أخوتي أولا ً جاء الجناحان و من ثم جاء الملاك .-في البدء أيها الأب حبقوق ، كان التوق إلى الحرية ، الحرية لا توجد. و لكن فجأة ً وسط أغوار العبودية ، يحرك رجل ٌ يديه المغلولتين بسرعة ، و عنف و كأنهما جناحان ، و من ثم رجل ٌ آخر فآخر ، و أخيرا ً الناس جميعا .-لقد افترق الصديقان ، و عاد كل ٌّ إلى بيته ، عاد اللحم إلى التراب ، و الروح إلى الرب .-ما معنى حياة الرجل ؟ ما قيمتها ؟ لا شيء إذا لم تكن حرة !-آه ! ليت هناك رجل ٌ واحد ٌ يملك القدرة على أن يجوع حتى الموت لكي لا يموت الناس من الجوع !-الأنبياء حيوانات متوحشة ، إنهم يفتحون أفواههم هكذا فجأة و يبتلعونك حتى آخر عظمة !-أما من أمل ٍ في أن أزهر مرة ً أخرى يا رب !-كلما زادت الشياطين داخلنا ، زادت فرصتنا لخلق الملائكة . الملاك هو الاسم الذي نطلقه على الشياطين التائبين !- و أنا حين أميل على نملة ٍ فإنني أرى داخل عينها السوداء اللامعة وجه الرب !-الموت ليس بابا ً يٌغلق ؛ غنه باب ٌ يفتح ، إنه يُفتح و انت تلجه !-حين يتقدم العمر بالشيطان يصبح ناسكا !-الحياة الرهبانية مرض ٌ معدٍ !-وحدهن النساء الشريفات يعرفن كم أن الشرف مرير ٌ و غامض !-الزمن ليس حقلا ً يُقاس بالقصبات ، و لا بحرا ً يُقاس بالأميال ! إنه نبض القلب .-كلنا يعلم أن القديسين يأتون إلى العالم من أجلنا نحن الخطاة !-أن تسألني عن معنى الجنة؟ إنها آلاف ٌ من المتع الصغيرة .-أليس هذا هو معنى الشباب ؟ إرادة تخليص العالم !-لا توجد في العالم إلا امرأة ٌ واحدة ، امرأة ٌ واحدة ٌ لها وجوه ٌ لا تُحصى !-الروح حيوان ٌ يفور بالحياة !7.40 AM

Back in October of 2002 my parents had the wacky idea to take a family vacation in Florida. I wasn't too keen on the idea, but I went along with it because none of the excuses I could come up with sounded good. I started thinking about this book because the it was something I read while on this vacation, and this vacation was the scene for one of my big anxiety induced breakdowns, where I acted out in very undesirable ways, made everyone around me really uncomfortable and probably baffled my family by wondering why their son/brother ended up curled up on a couch crying less than two hours after landing.... and since I pulled a minor reprise of the Greg completely loses his shit anxiety show this evening it made me think about this vacation. And then this book. And to get my mind out of the anxiety ghetto I thought maybe I'd write a review to help move my brain back to it's usual state. The flight down was a horrific ordeal. I hate to fly under the best circumstances. Flying for me is physically painful the pressure of taking off and landing feels like needles are being stuck into my head. I can barely hear anything while I'm in the air (or for a couple of hours once I land), my sinuses generally feel like they are filled with expanding balloons and I find the seats in airplanes to be really uncomfortable with not inadequate legroom so my knees are usually jammed into the seat in front of me. That is my situation in the best possible conditions for flying. On this particular flight I was flying on Jet Blue, which was the equivalent in 2002, at least for flights from NYC to Orlando, as being about as white trash as riding the Greyhound bus between rural area A and rural area B. This flight was all the pain of flying coupled with all the worst parts of any bus ride I'd ever taken. This is going somewhere. At the time I took my awful flight to Florida I was reading this book. My plan had been to bring the book, read it on the plane and hopefully make the two hour flight go by really quickly. That didn't work. I succeeded in getting my seat and started to read the book while the rest of the cretins were boarding. And I was reading my book, minding my own business when the person sitting next to me sat down. It was a woman, and she probably weighed close to three hundred pounds. She didn't fit into her own seat and spilled out liberally into my personal space. I don't like having physical contact with strangers so I wedged myself as far from her as possible, but still couldn't really escape some physical contact. She loudly complained to her equally large husband that she didn't have enough room and about the rudeness of other people who take up too much space (I guess that would be me), she then proceeded to dig through a large paper shopping back filled with snacks and began eating. I was feeling disgusted by my neighbor. It was after I began to think, what a disgusting and loud person this is (she was loudly commenting on what she was eating with her husband who sat across the aisle, who was also eating from his own big paper bag of snacks) that she turned her attention briefly away from her feeding to notice what I was reading. She then loudly told her husband that I was reading a disgusting book and how could anyone read something like that. She may have gone on about my book for a while longer but her attention returned to her feeding. Once the plane started to take off my ears and sinuses did their thing and I couldn't read anymore. I spent the rest of the flight staring at the little TV screen, watching the progress of where the plane was on a map. I'm amazed that a person had the kind of reaction she had to this book. It had been quite a while since the movie had pissed off Christians and caused a sensation. But she remembered and probably lots of other people did too, but what they thought of the book (and movie) didn't necessarily have anything to do with what was actually in either. I remember when the movie came out all the uproar, and what passed into my young teenage mind was that Jesus has fantasies of graphic sex with Mary Magdalene while he's on the cross. This isn't what the last temptation of Jesus is in either the book or movie. The temptation that the devil gives to Jesus is the possibility of living a regular life. Marrying Mary Magdalene, having a family, not being crucified, not having the weight of being a savior on his shoulders. Having a happy life. Being a man instead of the son of God (so yes in the temptation he would have had sex, but it would be like the sex people normally have who are married and have kids). I don't understand what the problem Christians have with this. Personally, after reading the book and seeing the movie I'd be more willing to take the Jesus story seriously. It adds a humanity to the figure of Christ and creates a sort of existential hero out of Jesus, as opposed to a rather boring story of a thing that knows it's a God and goes through with an ordeal of pain knowing full well that it can't really hurt him since he is more divine than human. The story in this book is almost a reverse of Pascal's Wager. Jesus could be divine, but he's uncertain. The Devil offers him the choice of taking the consolation prize, grabbing the sure thing of a happy life. Not taking the Devil's offer is taking the old Kierkegaard leap, trusting with faith and knowing somewhere in the back of your mind that all the suffering could be in vain. What I find disgusting is the idea that Christians would be so disturbed with the humanity and doubts of Jesus. I'd get it if they found the whole Jesus was a man thing disgusting, but they have no trouble with knowing he was man enough to be die. What sick fucks! The only humanity that they will give to the guy who they claim to worship is the human condition to die. To live, to be human, is an outrage to them. I loved this book and the movie.
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Reviews
☽ Moon Rose ☯
THE POWER OF SUFFERINGAs the wheel of life turns, sometimes one finds oneself at the very bottom. These are moments in one's life when emptiness engulfs it. As it devours the flesh, it plunges one's existence into an abysmal darkness, weakening the already wounded BODY thereby propelling the SPIRIT to awaken from its deep slumber...Usually prompted by such inevitable events in life like an incurable disease, an excruciating physical or emotional pain, an utter loneliness or a self-imposed isolation, it immerses the BODY in a deeply rooted SUFFERING, tingling the SPIRIT and enabling its possibility to flap its wings. As the BODY succumbs, the SPIRIT struggles to come out, as it seeks the LIGHT and yearns to unify itself to the SOURCE thereby placing one's existence on the precipice of either death or immortality. The outcome depends on the strength of the BODY to persevere and the ability of the SPIRIT to inspire. The successful union of the BODY and the SPIRIT was the union Jesus Christ achieved in His life as a man, as He conquered bodily PAIN, FEAR and DEATH through His unwavering SPIRIT, strengthened by SUFFERINGS provided by GOD.This was what Nikos Kazantzakis captured in his fictional account of Jesus Christ as he portrayed Him as a MAN, trying to tap His "INNER GOD" by transubstantiating the FLESH into SPIRIT, evidently contrary to the institutionalized church's version of His divinity, which was SPIRIT into FLESH---GOD becoming MAN. The church intentionally opted to obliterate His humanness, to emphasize His divinity as a GOD for their own benefit. Without considering that the struggle of the BODY and the SPIRIT within Jesus Christ as a MAN is the same struggle all humans go through, the same PAIN and the same FEAR, the same SPIRIT trying to unify itself to the spitting IMAGE of its SOURCE.Therefore, Jesus Christ is the epitome of MAN who overcomes His bodily weakness by purposely detaching Himself from worldly happiness and embracing SUFFERING as a means to forge His SPIRIT to become one with GOD.This makes SUFFERING as God's holy call to the SPIRIT, His way of touching one's life, to awaken the true self, the SPIRIT that dwells in the BODY---the very "image of GOD" within us all. LOVE IS THE NAME OF THE TRUE GODTo know the true meaning of LOVE, is to see the face of GOD. To believe in GOD, is to be capable of LOVE that is unconditional. To LOVE like GOD, is unleashing "the GOD" that lurks inside us.GOD is already a pure SPIRIT, the fitting image of TRUE LOVE that can encompass all, a pure intelligence that knows and understands all, unlike MEN who are still both FLESH and SPIRIT, still incapable of grasping the full intelligence within himself without the aid of LOVE. If SUFFERING forges the SPIRIT to conquer the FLESH, LOVE is the basic ingredient of the SPIRIT to fathom SUFFERING, as LOVE enables the SPIRIT to understand all, to be able to understand all means to forgive all and to be able to forgive all, is to embrace all WITHOUT ANY EXEMPTIONS, thus LOVE completes the process of transmutation of MAN into GOD.That is the reason why Jesus Christ centers His teachings on LOVE, not as a GOD, but most especially as a MAN.The path that Jesus Christ chose as a MAN showed the perfect unification of SUFFERING and LOVE to make the SPIRIT indestructible, as it detaches itself from the FLESH, which all MEN can identify and emulate.月亮 луна
Tatiana
I loved this book! It puzzles me deeply why some Christians didn't like it. Perhaps a statement such as "Christ is both fully divine and fully human" can sometimes sound fine to people as an idea, but we don't want to think through what that means in actuality. We still want to think of Christ as 100% divine and maybe 10, maybe 20% human. Heaven forbid that he be actually, you know, human!I was raised Catholic, but was in my high school religious exploration phase, and was actually Buddhist at the time I encountered this book and Kazantzakis' other masterpiece Zorba the Greek. This book had the effect of pulling me back towards Christianity, a pull I still feel today, because it opened up to me a deep connection with the character of Christ. And because Kazantzakis' struggles with Buddhism resonated with me, his theme of being torn between a life of contemplation and renunciation on the one hand, and one of action, usefulness, and industry on the other. This is also the central choice Jesus makes in the book. Should he be a man or should he become the Christ? Is life's meaning in the doing, in daily accomplishments, politics, struggles, successes? Or is it to be found in ideas, pure thought and ideals, spiritual contemplation, and renunciation? This question of Kazantzakis which runs throughout his work, came to him in the context of the Greek civil war, to which some of dearest friends were giving their lives at the time he wrote. I can see the young man he was then, someone not much older than I at the time of my high school searchings, and torn between choices for his own life.Paradoxically Jesus' ultimate choice, though an act of renunciation on the surface, caused the profoundest transformation of the universe possible, became the most important action anyone ever did. So thought and action through Christ become one choice.I have a friend, Katharina, who feels that if she were Mary, if she were Jesus' mother, she would have wanted him to grow up to be a happy, normal, married, steady carpenter. That would be her wish for her son and for the whole universe. That worries me, and I can't get it out of my mind. You mean, you'd rather there have been no Christ in the history of the universe? So your son could have a normal life? Isn't his surpassing joy now in triumph not worth the cost? All of our joy and our salvation? No. Marriage, kids, mastery of his craft, daily bread, plain happiness, is what she would wish for her son. And I mean, who can look at The Pieta and not understand in some way that wish? What heartbreak could ever surpass that of this lone woman cradling the torn body of her first and favorite son? So the dichotomy resonated with me in high school. At the time Buddhism seemed to call me into a life of contemplation and renunciation, and Christianity into full engagement with an active life. That may simply have been my misunderstanding of Buddhism, since Matthieu Ricard seems to feel empowered by his religion to establish clinics and schools all over the Himilayas. In fact, I'm just realizing this instant that both religions actually call us to both halves of the central question, both to the truest ideals and the most active of actual lives. At the time, though, it seemed very different.To finish the story, in high school I eventually settled on Science and Atheism as my religion. It remained so until the latter half of my third decade, in which I was called back to Christianity, specifically this time to the Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). Mormons don't have any great literature to their credit yet, at least not that I've found, I may be slandering someone by this statement. But the restored gospel itself has all the greatness required, and Kazantzakis' view matches the real and living person of Christ I find in it more closely than any other depiction of the paradoxical divine and human man. It may just be that my fundamental way of understanding the world is through literature, and this novel speaks to me of the living Christ more clearly than sutras or scriptures can.
Logan
Beautiful book. I grew up Catholic and Jesus is always hitting me in the back of the head, but this book is good for all non-religious types (of which I definitely am despite the upbringing). I'm not sure how many translations into English are out there of this, or which one I read, but this book reads a lot of the time like prose poetry. Seriously beautiful. I remember wishing the Jesus in this book was the Jesus I was brought up with. That sort of response is why he got booted from the Orthodox. The best always get exiled. FIVE STARS!!!
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